It is a variation of the cross-in-square church but in this case the dome is supported by eight pilasters peripherally. When met in Greek churches (Ossios Loukas in Phocis), it is considered to be an influence from Constantinople. A semi-circular or semi-elliptical window, with wedge-shaped panes of glass separated by mullions arranged like the spokes of a wagon wheel. Decorative patterns, very common in Byzantine church masonry. A fixed window positioned to the side of a doorway or window. The principal hall of an Aegean dwelling, oblong in shape and formed with sloping sides and a flat top, with a passage leading to an underground burial chamber. A semicircular recess or niche; a large apse. They are usually small, barrel-vaulted churches, single-nave or three-aisle. When the ridge line of a gable-roofed house is perpendicular to the street, the roof is said to be a “gable-end roof.”. A plan, strategy, or model is always an arrangement, parcelling, and structuring of spatial relationships. Fenestration: It’s a blanket terms for the design, construction, and presence of any openings in a building.Think windows, doors, vents, wall panels, skylights, curtain walls or louvers. A small, square cupola that functions as a lookout tower, located at the top of a building. In this architectural type the emphasis is on the length and therefore it is often characterized as basilican plan. This type originates from the Roman mausoleum and during the early Christian period it was mainly used in martyria. A plant of the Mediterranean region whose serrated leaves were copied in stone to ornament Corinthian and Composite capitals; used also to decorate moldings and friezes. An arched ceiling or roof made of stone, brick, or concrete (cf. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a central axis pole. Adobe bricks are often bonded together with mud- or lime-mortar joints, and coats of lime-and-sand stucco often cover adobe walls to prevent them from eroding in the rain. This is a technique common to American folk architecture. Played 531 times. The metal fittings of a building, such as locks, latches, hinges, handles, and knobs. See stick-work. A vaulted space beneath the pavement of a church, often housing relics or tombs. A wide, wrap-around covered porch lined with columns on one side, and common to French Colonial architecture of Louisiana. Based on the connection between these two parts the type is subdivided into the following categories: complex four-columned, semi-complex four-columned, simple four-columned and simple two-columned. Though you might not have your heart set on a certain type, knowing a few basic architectural designs will help you build a vocabulary to properly express what it is you really want. Adobe buildings are particularly common in the southwestern United States, where they are indigenous. A roof shaped like a bell, and typically situated on top of a round tower. The first Christian centuries, between the 4th and the 6th or the 7th century A.D. A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form. These years marked the height of both the British Empire and the Industrial Revolution, when the United Kingdom became a global power, and its culture, including its architecture, assimilated influences from all over the world. Jacobean architecture was revived in the United States the early 20th century. Before you can begin to use ORACLE, you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner. Long slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface in a horizontal fashion, overlapping one another from top to bottom. These churches consist of a crossed square where a cross and the three-parted Holy Bema are inscribed. A sequence of alternating raised and lowered wall sections at the top of a high exterior wall or parapet. This architectural type was widely used during the early Christian period. It includes elements of engineering and art. Architects may also require understanding of sustainability, culture, law, business, materials, physics and other sciences. See lattice-work. A manner of setting door knobs in place. An open, roofed porch, usually enclosed on the outside by a railing or balustrade, and often wrapping around two or more (or all of the) sides of a building. The term used to describe columns placed between the ends of two walls, commonly projecting from the ends of the cella of a small Greek Temple. Architecture: The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings. The inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. Clapboards are a traditional weather-proofing device. A turret is usually cylindrical, and is topped by a conical roof. In ancient Greece, the Doric order was the masculine, and the most preferred, order. On April 12, 2016 The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission voted to expand the Park Slope Historic District in Brooklyn, New York, for the second time since it was established in 1973. Columns may be plain or ornamental. In ancient Greece, the Ionic order was the feminine order, and the most appropriate for temples constructed in homage to goddesses. B.F.E. Early stoas were open at the entrance with columns, usually of the. A window with two sashes that move independently of each other. Pier is also the term used for the solid mass between windows, doors, and arches. An exterior wall, or face, of a building. This church type appears in Greece during the first half of the 10th century. In Greece we come across it mainly during the middle Byzantine years. Vernacular architecture typically exhibits the traditional ethos of its builders. A smooth surface, usually rectangular (or sometimes circular) in shape and framed by a molding, and often featuring decorative, sculptural carving. Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures; some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section. An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade. Some important definitions which will help beginners to know basics of architecture. The colonial kitchen display of the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was exceedingly popular amongst Colonial Revival enthusiasts. In a Doric frieze, the projecting block marked by vertical grooves (glyphs) between the rectangular areas known as metopes.. A square beam that is the lowest of the three horizontal components of a Classical entablature. Architecture is the planning, design and construction of buildings and other large structures. In ancient Roman architecture, a large rectangular building used as a tribunal or for other public purposes and generally arranged with nave, aisles, and one or more apses. Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. This scene is emblematic of basic architecture. A curved vault that is erected on a circular base and that is semicircular, pointed, or bulbous in section. Please be sure to include an email address in your billing information so that we may keep you informed of activities and events. A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet. Learn the basics of Revit for architectural design. Thus we start with some of the terms that help describe a building’s basic form: the plan and roof shape. A passageway that cuts through the center of a building, from front to back, and off of which rooms open to the sides. As local environments evolve over time, so too does vernacular architecture. An upper story of a building that projects out over the story beneath it, common in Colonial American architecture. Their name originates from the Arabic city, Kufa. One of the five Classical Orders, the Ionic is characterized by a scroll-shaped (voluted) capital element, the presence of dentils in the cornice, and a frieze that might contain continuous relief ornament. This course also provides you with a good A colonnaded porch in front of the facade of a church, in early Christian architecture often serving as the fourth side of an atrium; also a transverse vestibule preceding the church nave and aisles. A band of richly sculpted ornamentation on a building. Jacobean architecture made use of many classical elements, such as columns, pilasters, and arcades, but it did so in a free and fanciful manner, rather than according to strict classical tradition. A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall. On the contrary, cross-in-square churches are more elegant. Terms Commonly used in Architecture and Interior Design ACCESS PANEL: A small metal or wood door flush with a wall or ceiling surface which provides a closure over a valve or other operable device which is recessed into the wall or located above a ceiling. A roof covered with tiles that are usually hollow and half-cylindrical in shape, and made out of clay. A railing consisting of a row of balusters supporting a rail. Components are uniquely identifiable, non-trivial, nearly independent devices, individuals, organizations, organisms, elements, building blocks, parts, or sub-assemblies that may be collected together to cooperate or to serve a common purpose. A repeated pattern, image, idea, or theme. Dormer windows are sometimes crowned with pediments, and they often light attic sleeping rooms; “dormer” derives from “dormir,” French for “to sleep.”. , lining the side of the building; they created a safe, enveloping, protective atmosphere. The architecture, interior decoration and regal colors (“Pompeian red,” in particular) of these ancient cities influenced the Federal Style of the early 19th century. A spirit, character, custom, etc. Rough-edged brick, often of variegated colors. In the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, a kitchen inspired by the kitchens of Colonial America. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center. A person in a wheelchair (people), in Boston, Massachusetts (places), with the backdrop of the famous 19th century Trinity Church reflected in the glass exterior of a 20th-century skyscraper, the John Hancock Tower (things). Furthermore, unlike cross-in-square churches, in the octagonal ones it is easier to see the Pantokrator in the dome, since the dome is visible from the entrance because the church is bigger. A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. Bricks formed out of mud or clay, and baked in a kiln or under the sun. The story of Hansel and Gretel is a fairy tale in which two children lost in a forest come upon a gingerbread house trimmed with candy, but which is presided over by a child-eating witch. The period after the end of the Byzantine Empire, namely after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Materials used can … genre of art and literature and especially architecture in reaction against principles and practices of established modernism. A half-cylindrical vault, semicircular or pointed in cross section; also called tunnel vault. Thus, the baptized to be from the yard or the exterior house, where the blessing, the exorcism and the profession of faith took place went into the interior, the photisterion. The Corinthian column was the showiest of the three basic columns, with a tall acanthus leaf capital, a molded base, and a slender, fluted shaft. According to another view, it derives from Roman halls of throne in the peristyle of the Roman houses or in the funerary chapels of the catacombs and the cemetery martyria. The entablature has a plain architrave, a frieze composed of metopes and triglyphs, and a cornice with projecting blocks (mutules). All-in Rate: In Construction, the term means the … Ten architectural terms for you. Ionic: a type of classical architecture with scroll-like. Pueblos consist of many adjacent houses made of adobe brick, although these houses are often, themselves, called pueblos. A garden structure built up over a path or narrow terrace, lined with evenly spaced columns or posts that support a wooden-framed roof without sheathing. A small but prominent portion of a building that juts out from a main building, either above its roof line, or to the side, and which is identified by a unique (usually diminutive) height and individual roof type. The bell roof has origins in Normandy, toured extensively by Stanford White, who incorporated bell roofs into many of his Shingle Style houses and buildings. Abacus: A slab, the uppermost member of a capital. forces. Casement windows often occur in pairs. A framing motif consisting of an entablature and pediment supported by two columns. Eclecticism in architecture was very popular in both Victorian England and in the United States during the second half of the 19th century. When combined with pilasters, columns, or shafts, it is called a compound pier. The principal exterior face of a building, usually the front. shared throughout a common people. Besides, one architectural origin of the basilica (since there are many disputes on its origin) are the Roman roads that had arcades supported by columns on their sides. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or Architectural Fiberglass column capitals, the abacus may be cast as part of the capital or as a separate piece. Four-sided stones – usually porous – are framed by thin, red bricks, the plinths. Belvederes are characteristic of Italianate houses. A supporting substructure for a column or statue. Column- an upright pillar that is often made from stone or concrete, which may be used to support an arch or roof. A decorative strip of wood running just below the eaves of a building. Ancient Roman cities buried by volcanic rock with the eruption of Mt. A molding about a fireplace, often highly decorated. The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes at the top of a roof. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. It may run along the upper portion of a wall just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a classical entablature that lies between the architrave and cornice. Shingling is a traditional weather-proofing method for building. Columns may be plain or ornamental. A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. A supporting vertical pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. As of Dec 01 20. Rafters that are exposed to the outside of a building. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The structural units that divide adjacent windows. An entrance porch with columns or pilasters and a roof, and often crowned by a triangular pediment. Basic Definitions. The projecting edge of a roof that overhangs an exterior wall to protect it from the rain. Alternatively, here’s a more manageable list of 45 construction terms and concepts every architect should know. The good news is that almost all of the words associated with architecture (l’architecture) are the same in English and French or very similar. The Monastery mosaics constitute one of the three most dominant painting styles during the end of the 11th century. Elizabethan architecture resulted from the English debut of French and Italian Renaissance architecture, whose classical order and symmetry transformed the asymmetrical and rambling medieval English castle. The basics are simple—architecture is about people, places, and things. They derive from the early Christian martyria and at the beginning they spread in N. Africa, Syria and Armenia. Due to the impermanent nature of this construction, very few Poteau- en-terre buildings remain. Building complex annexed to the early Christian basilicas. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. On the capital, large conjoined Ionic volutes are combined with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. Small, rectangular-shaped slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface, overlapping one another from top to bottom. An arch whose arc is shorter than that of a full semi-circle. They are churches of small dimensions consisted of a basic square space covered with a dome usually supported by four barrel-vaults. Regency Style Early 19th century architectural style (notably in London) associated with the British Prince Regent, later King George IV (1762-1830). Similar to a terrace, a patio is an outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. Small rectangular blocks that, when placed together in a row abutting a molding, suggest a row of teeth. If raised over a square or polygonal base transitional squinches or pendentives must be inserted at the corners of the base to transform it into a near circle. In classical architecture, series of urns and continuous or repeated swags of garlands are common decorative motifs. 1. Balustrade: A railing composition composed of upper and lower rails, balusters and pedestals. We'll also provide deeper explanations into concepts and building tectonics at a residential scale. An architectural term applied to a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation is alternately wide and narrow. Statues of men and women dressed in ancient Grecian or Roman attire. A classical style of architecture. The Parthenon temple was built in honor of the Greek goddess Athena; it was ringed with 46 columns, and crowned by two pediments containing a wealth of sculptural detail. © 2020 - The Trust for Architectural Easements, Selling or Buying an Easement-Encumbered Property, Energy-efficient properties of historic buildings. The space inside the triangular piece is called the “tympanum,” and is often decorated. A mixing of various architectural styles and ornamentation of the past and present, including ornamentation from Asia. A concave molding used as the intermediate part of a base. A decorative triangular piece situated over a portico, door, window, fireplace, etc. Masonry made entirely out of plinths (with the typical red color) is encountered in Constantinople. The use of adobe bricks dates back to prehistoric times, and continues today. Elizabethan architecture was revived in the United States in the early 20th century. uplift: raising of a structure in response to structural. 10+ Architectural Elements posted by John Spacey , June 07, 2016 updated on March 16, 2017 Architecture elements are components and treatments that are used in the design of buildings, houses, structures, interiors and landscapes. A roof with a bell-shaped profile. A projecting bay that is lit on all of its projecting sides by windows. Jack arches are not actually arch-shaped, but are, instead, flat, and made of individual wedge-shaped bricks or stones held in place through compression. It is distinguished in circular, octagonal, hexagonal, three-conch and tetra-conch according to its form. A barrel-vault is interrupted by a second transverse and highly placed barrel-vault. A perpendicular window located in a sloping roof; triangular walls join the window to the roof. A window frame that is hinged on one vertical side, and which swings open to either the inside or the outside of the building. Fan lights are usually found over entrance doors and windows, particularly in Federal and Greek Revival homes. An open, colonnaded, roofed space serving as a porch before the entrance to a building. The upper part of a Classical order comprising architrave, frieze, and cornice. A triangular space formed by the raking cornices (sloping sides) and horizontal cornice of a gabled temple; also used above a door or window. Vernacular architecture responds to local methods of building construction, local climates, and local living needs and traditions. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, to which the roof covering is affixed. An exceptionally tall portion of a building. barrel vault, fan vault). Beam- a long, sturdy piece of w… In Part 1 of this two-part course we'll cover the fundamental concepts of architecture and the associated skills you'll need in Autodesk software to design your own buildings. A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In the frieze of a Doric order, the rectangular area between triglyphs; often left plain but sometimes decorated with relief ornament. French Baroque architecture melded traditional French architectural forms (such as steep roofs and irregular rooflines) with classical Italian elements (such as columns, porticos, and segmental pediments), and greatly influenced the non-religious architecture of 18th-century Europe. Trusses- framework composed of struts, posts, and rafters, which may support a roof, bridge, or other similar structure. Slate has been used to roof buildings in the United States since the colonial era. Easy thejazzkickazz Aug 15 04 7941 plays 2. Chimney flues visible from the exterior of a house, and sometimes very decorative. The BFE is the minimum elevation, per FEMA, at which new construction must be built. Picturesque architecture and landscape architecture evolved in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, and influenced American architecture and landscapes in the 19th century; winding paths, asymmetrical compositions, rustic or exotic elements (see pagoda), and faux ruins were characteristic of picturesque architecture and landscapes. Architecture constructed in England during the reigns of James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II (1603-1688); Jacobean architecture followed Elizabethan architecture, and preceded the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones. Glossary of Architectural Terms Page 1 Abacus The abacus is the top part of a column capital. Architectural terms used in describing heritage structures. See Traditional Ethos. A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers. Rooflines can be highly decorative, with balustrades, pediments, statuary, dormer windows, cross gables, etc. Picturesque settings were favored for their emotional associations. An outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Persian, Mesopotamian architecture and all other lands which the Early Muslim conquests conquered in the seventh and eighth centuries. We will include terms that are very hard to find A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides. window. Architecture modeled after the buildings of ancient Greece and Rome. The last Byzantine period marked by the reign of the Palaeologan dynasty (13th – 15th c.). See eclecticism. Start studying Basic Architecture Terms. We distinguish two basilica types: the. Brickwork made up of rows of bricks of alternating colors, typically red and white. hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. The shallow concave channels cut vertically into the shaft of a column or pilaster. See patio. forces. Its stonework was originally brightly colored, but its paint has long since worn away. A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church. : BFE is the acronym for Base Flood Elevation . Finial: It’s the decorative ornament found on top of a building’s roof, spire, gable or canopy.It’s a common addition in Gothic architecture, where the fleur-de-lys is often used as the ornamentation. If you want to be an architect, you have to speak in a certain way because if you don't ... no one will believe you or take you seriously. The following are common architectural terms. A rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, which supports a structure, such as a roof. It usually consists – apart from the yard or the external area of the baptism in contact with the southern aisle of the basilica - of two more rooms annexed to the aforementioned yard. Roman attire with columns or pillars of this church type basic orders of architecture... In construction, the projecting lowest portion of a pergola, and continues today vertical support often rectangular in and. A variation of the three cross arms from below by a succession of arches supported by columns of of! Roof line, often with an arcade or arcading: the same applied to small! 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