1944 July–December Troop Ship Crossings. List of shipwrecks: 2 December 1944 Ship Country Description Akikawa Maru Japan World War II: Convoy MI-29: The Standard 2AT tanker (a.k.a. 10 officers and 160 enlisted men. Grover, David (1987). If a unit was attached to another unit, either the larger unit will be in parentheses - e.g. Passengers were awed by its great size, measuring 1,019 feet long and displacing 80,677 tons. Troops of the US Army 2nd Infantry Division march up the bluff at the E-1 draw in the Easy Red sector of Omaha Beach on D+1, 7 June 1944. The English Channel, nearly a hundred miles wide between Portsmouth, England, and the Normandy beaches, was a formidible military barrier. Thus there is no longer an official record of who sailed on what ship, though there are still valuable sources that can be found. Note that units may have crossed on multiple ships. Sunk off Cherbourg, France, Christmas Eve 1944, by U-486. '1944 world war ii troop ship crossings skylighters december 30th, 2018 - world war ii troopship crossings departing in 1944 if you have information about a crossing please submit your information the list is in chronological order by departure date' '589th engineers home page The disorganization and miscommunication which featured prominently in the last voyage of the Leopoldville actually began with the mobilization of the 262nd and 264th Regiments on 23 December. On December 4, 1946, the ship was recommissioned as the flagship of the United States Lines. Royal Australian Navy 1939-1942. The ship was named after the wife of Britain’s reigning monarch, King George V. The royal couple was on hand when the ship was launched RMS Queen Mary was an instant success, a legend in its own time. Twenty of the Queen Mary’s lifeboats were left off the ship to save weight. British Troopships: Images of many ships used by the British. ", John: "I was blown away. When I threw it overboard, it really brought back memories of that Christmas Eve. This means only the smaller unit is known to have been on board; the larger unit is included, since people may be searching on that. And they didn't. This was Europeans. 0000028523 00000 n hl jknlmoAX h @ X 2: Hȸ I g`ԝ M b )k E G . Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary were used as troop transports during the Second World War. I just wiped it completely out of my mind and never even thought about it again. The list is in chronological order by departure date. Life was always at a leisurely pace back in the 1930's. Awagawa Maru) was torpedoed and sunk in the East China Sea west of Yakushima Island) by USS Sea Devil ( United States A total of 249 troops, seven guards and eighteen crewmen were killed. Ships to transport troops were already used in Antiquity. Belgian Trooper SS Leopoldville. With the threat of submarine or airborne attack, speed was the greatest defensive attribute that a ship could have. Gill, G. Hermon (1957). Those guys jumped from the Léopoldville, they missed. Web Site Copyright © 2007 Shayne E. Wallesch & Wendy J. Hochnadel. Magistr, Dec 21, 2007 #5. In 1941 she returned to New York and made several crossings from the northeast as a troop ship such as the one on February 14, 1944, sailing from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Greenock, Scotland, carrying among others the 814th Tank Destroyer Battalion. Troop Ships of the 81st Tank Battalion The 81st Tank Battalion left New York harbour on 10th February, 1944 on their way to Liverpool, England. Built in 1929, she was a veteran in carrying troops to battle. It was later rewritten and promulgated as GIRO-1944 on January 13 1944 in conjunction with "Wartime Instructions for Merchant Ships" (WIMS). Ship Passenger Lists (the 1870s through the 1960s) The GG Archives is a Great Resource for Ship Passenger Lists - USA, Canada, Australia, and Other World Ports, from the 1870s - 1960s. If you have information about a crossing, please submit your information. Arrived Gourock Scotland - 28 July 1944 Debarked - 29 July 1944. 1944 Troop Ship Crossings. Could this have been a typo on his discharge papers? 1942 World War II Troop Ship Crossings Crossings - July Through December If you have information about a crossing, please submit your information. Troopships and Hospital ships of World War II, including those operated by the American Merchant Marine War Shipping Administration, U.S. Navy, and Army Transport Service Equipped with guns and trained crews, they would become hunters and search for rival countries merchant ships and try to sink them. There were other options, such as long distance telephones, but a telegram would have likely been the most common. They arrived on 25th February, 1944. February 28, 1944: Table reproduced from 1944 World War II Troop Ship Crossings January Through June (linke to site broken). Here & Now's Robin Young talks with Garland Waller and Barry Nolan, co-directors and producers of the film "The Silent Soldier and the Portrait." Cudos to Shayne E. Wallesch and Wendy J. Hochnadel for their research and continued updates. So this web page is an informal collecting ground for information about troop ship crossings. "A" Battery - 656th Field Artillery Battalion; Unit History of the A Battery of the 656th Field Artillery Battalion, 76th Infantry Division Headquarters Advance Party, 275th Infantry Regiment, 276th Infantry Regiment and Company L of 274th Infantry Regiment (all of, 86th Mountain Infantry Regiment (10th Mountain Division), Remainder of 76th Infantry Division (see 44-11-23), replacements, units unassigned, all headed for 3rd Army, T. Carnall, via M. Moore (e-mail address defunct), 3,145 mix of sailors, soldiers and marines, 596th Air Engineering Squadron (380th Air Service Group), Jack Wickham, of 38th Inf Reg (2nd Inf Div), via, See the Final Crossing of the Leopoldville web page, Helen Halcovage of the 201st Gen Hosp, via, 42 merchant crew; 26 armed guard; 30 Air force men; 64 misc Army medical personnel, If you have information about a crossing, please. 1944 1944 rarely used CT British Isles to Canada 1941 1941 troopships CU: Caribbean (later New York City) to Liverpool: 20 March 1943 30 May 1945 73 14-knot convoys of tankers with some fast cargo ships: GUF: Mediterranean to Chesapeake Bay: 29 November 1942 16 April 1945 22 faster ships GUS: Mediterranean to Chesapeake Bay: 21 December 1942 27 May 1945 92 AP Troop Ships. 501st Military Police Battalion; 124th AAA GN BN MBL, 689th Field Artillery Battalion; paratroopers, Headquarters Battery 404th Field Artillery Group; field artillery units; others, discharge and map of Lloyd Hardy (404th FA) via, War diary of Peter Richard Kullen (via Jim Kullen), 143rd Anti-aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Battalion, 378th Infantry Regiment; 358th Field Artillery Battalion; 359th Field Artillery Battalion; 360th Field Artillery Battalion; 320th Medical Battalion (all units of the 95th Infantry Division), The rest of the units of the 95th Infantry Division not carried on, 520th Quartermaster Railhead Company and many other troops; nurses on an upper deck, 195 troops of 978th Engineer Maintenance Company, 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion, Returnees, mostly Purple Hearts (ship manned by British Navy), 413th Infantry Regiment; HQ & HQ Battery 104th Infantry Division Artillery; 385th Field Artillery Battalion (all from, 414th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Bn (415th Infantry Regiment), 386th & 929th Field Artillery Battalions, 104th HQ Co, 104th Quartermaster Co, 804th Ordnance Co, 329th Medical Battalion (, 26th Infantry Division web sites & US Army Military History book, 101st Infantry Regiment (26th Infantry Division), Discharge papers & unit report of Gerald Ringelberg, 5,000 Troops of many Army Units including a group of 50 Detached Service Engineers, 105 Port Marine Maintenance Company; Replacements. The Germans had left mines, and possibly continued to send them in, as DeLand’s ST 344 hit a mine and exploded on July 20, 1944. Launched in 1938 and used as a troopship during World War II, it entered the regular transatlantic service of the Cunard Line in 1946.The ship was 1,031 feet (314 metres) long and 118.5 feet (36 metres) wide and had a draft of 38 feet (11.6 metres) and an original gross tonnage of 83,673. Since they were manufactured in Gourock, the lifeboats were lifted into their davits upon ship's arrival. Masterson 1949, p. 306. Unit names are spelled out when they fit (but not always); so search for the unit number - e.g., "106" or "106th" for the 106th Infantry Division. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Source: Troopships of World War II by Roland W. Charles, published by the Army Transportation Association, Washington, D.C., 1947 Troop ships for which additional information is available on this website. Born and raised on a farm, never been more than 50 miles from his home, he comes and signs up to go fight for his country. Athlone Castle, a converted mailship. Just never in this world expect that anybody would even be interested in the Leopold. Troop Ships of the 5AD Two pictures of the Edmund B. Alexander The Athlone Castle Another picture of H.M.T. Athlone Castle, a converted mailship. Six weeks on a troopship in Convoy OS62/KMS36 in WW2 13/12/1943 to 24/01/1944. The records of ships used to carry troops to their theaters of operations were destroyed intentionally in 1951. Anchor trials and adjustment of the magnetic compasses are made off Gourock. Ww1 Us Troop Transport Ships. First Armored Infantry Division (15,125 troops, 863 crew). Detail on the SS Homeric . All images are copyright © their respective owners. Troop Crossings: Crossing Submission Form: Site Information: Search: Contact Us: July to December: The records of ships used to carry troops to their theaters of operations were destroyed intentionally in 1951. Different units aboard are separated by semi-colons (;). SS Mariposawas designed for service in the Pacific Ocean including regular stops in ports along the West Coast of the United States, Hawaii, Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. Their high speeds allowed them to outrun hazards, principally German U-boats, usually allowing them to travel without a convoy. Operationally, troopships are normal ships, and unlike landing ships, cannot land troops directly on shore, typically loading and unloading at a seaport or onto smaller vessels, either tenders or barges. "38th Armored Infantry Battalion (7th Armored Division)", or vice versa "7th Armored Division (38th Armored Infantry Battalion)". It will be bad for morale.' 1944 World War II Troop Ship Crossings Last updated: February 23, 1999 - … ... Once she had been converted into such, she made two trooping crossings from Halifax to Clyde, each time escorted by destroyers. On Dec. 24, 1944, the troop ship S.S. Leopoldville set sail from Southampton, England, with more than 2,200 U.S. soldiers on board. The James Parker (AP 46) carried the 772nd Tank Battalion But this was to be her last tragic voyage. Tag Archives: 1943 Troop Ship Crossings Shipping Out -Stood Up. Approximately 6000 troops were onboard The H.M.T. At Southampton, at 0200 (2.00 AM) on Christmas Eve 1944, 2235 men from the U.S. 66th Infantry Division started to trudge wearily up the gangway of the tired old Belgian troopship SS Leopoldville. Departure Date. At Southampton, at 0200 (2 AM ) on Christmas eve 1944, 2235 men from the US 66th. For more information on the Aquatania, click on the picture above. Most of the Canadian Army troop crossings were made from "an eastern Canadian port" which the public correctly identified as Halifax; but at least two ships* sailed from Sydney with small Army drafts on board. Click here to view a site map. WWII Cruises . The modern troopship has as long a history as passenger ships do, as most maritime nations enlisted their support in military operations (either by leasing the vessels or by impressing them into service) when their normal naval forces were deemed insufficient for the task. LCCN 58037940. It will be bad for morale.' Bibliography . Christmas eve 1944, and 783 US troops die Introduction. With the Battle of the Bulge underway in Europe, reinforcements were needed. Selected Troopships of WWII - Scroll down to see total list. Editor's Note: This segment was rebroadcast on Nov. 11, 2020. ", Garland, on not knowing what had almost happened to her father, Garland Waller: "They were told, 'Do not talk about this. Royal Australian Navy 1939-1942. This is troopship Queen Elisabeth. Post-war: 1st Australian Signal Training Battalion ? Seventy tons of cement are used to temporarily patch the bow in Gourock, Scotland. Troop Crossings: Crossing Submission Form: Site Information: Search: Contact Us: January … The limited number of other troop ships were smaller, and usually had to travel in slower escorted convoys because of the submarine threat. The records of ships used to carry troops to their theaters of operations were destroyed intentionally in 1951. War Diary of 1st Lt. McKie M. Trotter III (via his son, 81st Infantry Division (321st Infantry Regiment), 393rd Infantry Regiment (99th Infantry Division), 32nd Infantry Regiment - Company C (7th Infantry Division), 84th Infantry Division (334th Infantry Regiment), 333rd Infantry Regiment, 84th Division and Division Headquarters, 11th Armored Division - 492nd Armored Field Artillery Battalion, 84th Infantry Division (335th Infantry Regiment), Part of 393rd Infantry Regiment (99th Infantry Division), Battery D, 567th AAA AW (Anti-Aircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons) Battalion, Personal experience of Frank McQuillan, 103rd Infantry Division (to, 103rd Infantry Division (including 328th Medical Battalion), Parts of the 100th Infantry Division (including the 399th Regiment, 1st Battalion), Article in the 100th Infantry Division Association Newsletter dated April 2001 by Bob Tessmer, 423rd Infantry Regiment and 2nd Battalion of the 424th Infantry Regiment (, 422nd Infantry Regiment and 424th Infantry Regiment minus 2nd Battalion (, Unit history of the 286th Engineer Combat Battalion (via, Replacements, (including E. Palmer, 168 pilots), Corporal Ivan Louis Tominack (7th Army, 42nd Infantry Division, 445th Ordnance (HAM) Company), via, various Army; Marine; Chinese cadets; New Zealand nurses (about 2000 troops total), 81st Engineer Combat Battalion, Division Artillery (589th, 590th, 591st, 592nd Field Artillery Battalions, Division Artillery Headquarters Battery), Special Troops (including 106th Reconnaissance Troop) (all from the, 3184th Signal Service Battalion; 64th Field Hospital and various medical units and many Army nurses; over 8000 replacement troops, 262nd Infantry Regiment (66th Infantry Division), 263rd Infantry Regiment (66th Infantry Division), 264th Infantry Regiment (66th Infantry Division), 15th Army including Army Headquarters, Headquarters Company and special troops, "History of the Fifteenth Army - 21 August 1944 to 11 July 1945", 76th Infantry Division Headquarters & 304th Infantry Regiment (76th Infantry Division), 385th Infantry Regiment (76th Infantry Division), 417th Infantry Regiment (76th Infantry Division). 0000028523 00000 n hl jknlmoAX h @ X 2: Hȸ I g`ԝ M b )k E G . Bibliography . Approximately 6000 troops were onboard The H.M.T. In 1940 it stopped the conquering Germans. Together with MARI, MPRI, etc. World War II Troop Ships is a "Fang, Ramses & Rupert " production. They picked up a cruiser/destroyer escort as they approached England. 1944 July–December Troop Ship Crossings. Aquitania left New York with the 628 TD's on board on 29 January 1944. Troop Ship Crossings. Many families did not learn the real story of how their loved ones died until years later. And it's Christmas Eve when a German U-boat torpedoes this converted steamship, and the attempt to rescue these people as the ship began to go down was just chaotic. In the 19th century, navies frequently chartered civili… other troop ships. And they didn't. With the Battle of the Bulge underway in Europe, reinforcements were needed. . 1944 1945 TM British Isles to Norway April 1940 May 1940 troop convoys TP Norway to British Isles May 1940 May 1940 troop convoys UR Loch Ewe (later Belfast) to Reykjavík: WN River Clyde, Oban and Loch Ewe to Firth of Forth: WP Wales to Portsmouth Us Army Transport Ships Wwii . ", "They were told, 'Do not talk about this. At 19. 1942 World War II Troop Ship Crossings Crossings - July Through December If you have information about a crossing, please submit your information. After nine hours, the ship returned to Southampton. Series 2 – Navy 1. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Normandy Invasion, June 1944-- Crossing the English Channel on "D-Day", 6 June 1944. They went down.". Crowded ship bringing American troops back home. Elements of the 66th Infantry Division; others, (unknown - large ship, not an ordinary troop carrier), Replacements (total of 11,891 troops & 1,061 crew). Ron Goldstein WWII Veteran. … As I was in this water, the thing that I thought about is what my mother would say when she got the letter that I hadn't survived. August 2 - 7. Troop Ship Crossing.pdf. Troop Transport Ships Wwii . Thus Ancient Rome used the navis lusoria, a small vessel powered by rowers and sail, to move soldiers on the Rhine and Danube. 42a i(b 6ǟ\\t 2 * k ca ) Of L n $ wP C C 2l R [ > 8 2 a } @ @C [3C ) | % . Vernon Joseph Baker We never had a chance. The troops would get off the ship, go to a Western Union office, send their family a telegram telling them when and how they would be getting home, and then they would get the train to there. So this bugs me, according to 1944 Troop Ship Crossings - January to June no troop ships sailed on 25 Apr 44 or arrived on 4 May 44. She later landed troops at the Omaha and Utah beaches and also at Le Havre, in all she made over 70 crossings and carried over 100,000 troops. Her ports include: Bombay, Marseilles, Capetown, Guadalcanal, Canal Zone, Naples, Liverpool and Mers-el-Kehbir. And then the [ballast] blew up, and the ship started to really sink fast. Already her log recorded 24 successful Channel crossings, and 120,000 troops had made that journey safely.
They had recently tasted success by accounting for their first victim, the British Silver Laurel, now they waited patiently for the next victim to enter their web. And yet we did it. That audio is available here. Joined: Feb 15, 2007 Messages: 691 The ship goes aground twice despite prior dredging of the river and her shallow draft. Nearly 800 soldiers were killed. Vernon Joseph Baker We never had a chance. And yet we did it. Robin Young Twitter Co-Host, Here & NowRobin Young brings more than 25 years of broadcast experience to her role as host of Here & Now. In 1941 it returned to New York and made several crossings from the northeast as a troop ship such as the one on February 14, 1944, sailing from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Greenock, Scotland, carrying among others the 814th Tank Destroyer Battalion. / 78th US.Infantry Division, Unknown, incomplete, or uncertain items of information are in. 42a i(b 6ǟ\\t 2 * k ca ) Of L n $ wP C C 2l R [ > 8 2 a } @ @C [3C ) | % . After repair, she was used on the North Atlantic and after D-Day was used on the Southampton - Cherbourg service. For questions or comments about this site, please e-mail ww2_troopships@comcast.net. But one amazing troop ship Master List of Personnel Forms & Examples So if you are looking for a particular ship or unit, you will have to use the FIND function in your browser. Narrative taken from a diary kept on the voyage by 1605985 AC2(C) Derek Clifford Wilkins, RAFVR, Age 18 (DCW). Military Transport Ships. They fell in between and were killed. June - August 1944 HMS Black Prince, light cruiser (CyberHeritage, click to enlarge) on to September-December 1944 World War II Troop Ships Home Page: Information primarily on troop ship crossings in the Second World War. Their half-prepared Christmas dinner was thrown away, duffel bags were packed, and the troops headed out to the har… Departure Date.pdf. October 2. ", On returning to the spot where the Leopoldville went down and throwing a wreath in the water, Nolan: "This was a moment of remembrance of greatest ideals. They arrived on 25th February, 1944. "According to our [U. S. National Archives] records, in 1951 the Department of the Army destroyed all passenger lists, manifests, logs of vessels, and troop movement files of United States Army Transports for World War II." Her maiden voyage began 16 January 1932 in New York City where she sailed to Havana, transited the Panama Canal and berthed in the Port of Los Angeles before continuing on to tour ten more countries in the south and west Pacific. May 30, 2016 ChainsawChicken 1943 Troop Ship Crossings, 4F, Buck, Gang plank, Going To War Again, Going To War Documentary, Going To War Essay, Going To War Gif, Going To War In A Dream, Going To War Meme, Troop Ship, Troop Ship Crossings Wwii, Troop Ship Poem, Troop Ship Ww2, Troop Ship Wwii, Troopship Meaning, Troopship … Already her log recorded 24 successful Channel crossings, and 120,000 troops had made that journey safely. escorted by 2 unknown British destroyers that were both sunk by U-boats, US Army Forces in Northern Ireland: Chronology, Actions of 310th Inf. ", John Waller: "I was in line to jump when the two ships collided. Mar.1944 clearly marked as a hospital ship, she was again bombed at Naples. Early passenger lists were handwritten, but once printing presses became commonplace on many steamships, the ship manifests became a souvenir of the voyage. On the sinking of the SS Léopoldville in the English Channel in 1944, Barry Nolan: "These were the people that when they talk about the 'greatest generation,' John Waller is one of the prime examples. Ashley Bailey produced this interview and Robin Young edited it for broadcast. Francesca Paris and Jack Mitchell adapted it for the web. Another troop ship had been sunk only the day before. Army Transport Service Ships. On Christmas Eve 1944, one of their troopships the SS Leopoldville, a Belgium passenger ship converted into a transport, was crossing the English Channel and was hit and sunk by a German U-Boat. Acadia On that date, after weeks of waiting in camp in southern England, these regiments received the order to move out. | January through June | July Through December |, Actions of 310th Inf. / 78th US.Infantry Division Athlone Castle The Queen Mary The R.M.S. They were on our way to replace the troops at the Battle of the Bulge. The ship was hit by the German submarine U-486. Us Navy Troop … WWII cruises - table pg.1.pdf. "According to our [U.
They had recently tasted success by accounting for their first victim, the British Silver Laurel, now they waited patiently for the next victim to enter their web. Starting with the Spanish-American War, passenger ships were outfitted as a troop ships to transport soldiers all over the world. It's overwhelming — it was really quite a moment. They were not escorted during the Atlantic crossing, and the slowed or stopped for nothing. 1944 WWII Troop Ship Crossings 1945 WWII Troop Ship Crossings This site provides a vast number of troop ships that carried soldiers overseas, both ETO and PTO. Detail on the SS Homeric . She has covered more than 350,000 miles, equal to 14 trips around the globe. The ship's next duty was to repatriate these troops and redeploy troops for the war against Japan. I guess when I did that I remembered that a lot of my friends, a lot of my comrades didn't make it. World War II Troop Ships claims no ownership of the images displayed on this site except While some ships were prized for their troop carrying capacity, others were converted into armed merchant ships. First time more than 10,000 persons had traveled on any ship (9,880 troops, 875 crew). In 1945, the ship was converted back to a troop transport and carried out trooping duties in the Far East. Masterson 1949, p. 306. "It was a scandal, and then they just forgot about it," Pfeifer said of Leopoldville's demise. Ships going into Greenoch (and variant spellings) or Glasgow or Firth of Clyde, Scotland were all going to the same destination. Troopships of World War II: Information from the American Merchant Marine At War site. WW2troopships.com & WWIItroopships.com A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime. "Lightning Division". Troop Ships of the 81st Tank Battalion The 81st Tank Battalion left New York harbour on 10th February, 1944 on their way to Liverpool, England. But her time was nigh! February 28: Arrives in Glasgow Scotland. The first Queen Elizabeth was one of the largest passenger liners ever built. On Christmas Eve 1944, more than 2,000 American soldiers were aboard the troop ship SS Léopoldville crossing the English Channel to France, when it … Belgian troopship SS Leopoldville, sunk by U-486 Christmas Eve 1944, and 783 U.S. troops die.. Introduction. Embarkation rolls Apart from several miscellaneous items in the Research Centre, embarkation rolls from 1 December 1939 – 31 December 1944 are held at the National Archives of Australia in series AT226/10. and … Troop Ship Names . The 1st and 2nd Divisions came directly to Halifax from various parts of Canada and immediately went on board ship. Belgian troopship SS Leopoldville. The records of ships used to carry troops to their theaters of operations were destroyed intentionally in 1951. This was to be her last tragic voyage. Gill, G. Hermon (1957). Sunk off Cherbourg Christmas Eve 1944, by U-486. The 1st and 2nd Divisions came directly to Halifax from various parts of Canada and immediately went on board ship. Use the Books Database to identify items: search by name of publication or name of ship. I have found evidence that the 335th, 338th, and 357th Harbor Craft companies operated from the area with quite a few Army small tugs involved. Unit names are spelled out when they fit (but not always); so search for the unit number - e.g., "106" or "106th" for the 106th Infantry Division. Series 2 – Navy 1. It may be coincidence, but the Ship's markings of SX seem to fit nicely with the fact that she was carrying the Royal Sussex Regiment. Early in the previous century it had thwarted Napoleon. 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Hochnadel for their and! 93-Year-Old father and the Normandy beaches, was a veteran in carrying troops to their theaters operations. Really brought back memories of that Christmas Eve 1944, by U-486 U-boats usually... Crossings in a single year ( linke to site broken ), '' Pfeifer said Leopoldville. That journey safely n't make it, passenger ships were prized 1944 troop ship crossings their carrying. The larger unit will be in parentheses - e.g from various parts of Canada and went! France, Christmas Eve 1944, and 783 U.S. troops die Introduction, ship. As a hospital ship, she was used on the North Atlantic and D-Day... With the Battle of the Bulge click on the picture above the Atlantic crossing, please your. Search on `` Scotland '' for any arrivals there, since the variants numerous... After nine hours, the ship returned to Southampton always spick and on. Just wiped it completely out of my friends, a lot of friends! 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